Only officially authorized food or feed can be marketed or cultivated in the EU. The authorization process of GM products does not fall within the competence of the Member States, however Member States may make decisions regarding the deliberate release (field trial) of GMOs into the environment.

The European Commission, the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA), and the EU member countries take part in the decision making regarding the authorization of GM products. The environmental and health safety of the product is evaluated prior to the decision. The European Commission submits its proposal on authorization, based on the EFSA’s opinion, and the Member States can accept or reject it. In accordance with its size, Hungary has 12 votes (among the 345 votes of the 27 Member States).

Two genetically modified plants are authorized for cultivation in the EU, the MON810 GM maize and the Amflora GM potato. Their cultivation has been banned in Hungary, as a moratorium has been introduced in both cases.